Principle curvature of translator

Suppose {\Sigma\subset\mathbb{R}^{3}} is a translator in {e_{3}} direction. Denote {V=e_{3}^T} and {A} is the second fundamental form of {\Sigma}. Then it is well know that

\displaystyle \Delta A+\nabla_VA+|A|^2A=0 \ \ \ \ \ (1)

Choose a local orthonormal frame {\{\tau_1,\tau_2\}} such that {A(\tau_1,\tau_1)=\lambda}, {A(\tau_2,\tau_2)=\mu} and {A(\tau_1,\tau_2)=0} in the neighborhood of some point {p}. We want to change (1) to some expression on {\lambda} or {\mu}. To do that, we need to apply both sides of (1) to {\tau_1,\tau_1}, getting

\displaystyle (\nabla_VA)(\tau_1,\tau_1)=\nabla_V \lambda-2A(\nabla_V \tau_1,\tau_1)=\nabla_V\lambda \ \ \ \ \ (2)

where we have used {\nabla_V\tau_1\perp \tau_1}. Similarly

\displaystyle (\nabla_{\tau_k} A)(\tau_1,\tau_1)=\nabla_{\tau_k}\lambda

\displaystyle (\nabla_{\tau_k}A)(\tau_1,\tau_2)=(\lambda-\mu)\langle \nabla_{\tau_k}\tau_1,\tau_2\rangle

Now let us calculate the Laplacian of second fundamental form

\displaystyle (\nabla_{\tau_k}^2A)(\tau_k,\tau_1)=\tau_k(\nabla_{\tau_k}\lambda)-2(\nabla_{\tau_k}A)(\nabla_{\tau_k}\tau_1,\tau_1)-(\nabla_{\tau_k}\tau_k)\lambda

\displaystyle =\tau_1(\nabla_{\tau_1}\lambda)-2\frac{(\nabla_{\tau_k}A)(\tau_1,\tau_2)^2}{\lambda-\mu}.

Then

\displaystyle (\Delta A)(\tau_1,\tau_1)=(\nabla_{\tau_k}^2A)(\tau_k,\tau_1)= \Delta \lambda-2\sum_{k=1}^2\frac{|A_{12,k}|^2}{\lambda-\mu}.

Combining all the above estimates to (1), we get

\displaystyle \Delta \lambda+\nabla_V\lambda+|A|^2\lambda-2\sum_{k=1}^2\frac{|A_{12,k}|^2}{\lambda-\mu}=0.

where we write {A_{12,k}=(\nabla_{\tau_k}A)(\tau_1,\tau_2)^2}. Using this equation and the other one on {\mu}, one can derive that if {\Sigma} is mean convex then it is actually convex.

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