Tag Archives: bubble

Bubble functions under different setting

Bubble function can be defined either on \mathbb{R}^n, \mathbb{S}^n or \mathbb{B}^n. For the following notations, c_n will denote suitable constants which may be different from line to line.

  • For every \epsilon>0 and  \xi\in\mathbb{R}^n, define

\displaystyle u_{\epsilon,\xi}=c_n\left(\frac{\epsilon}{\epsilon^2+|x-\xi|^2}\right)^{\frac{n-2}{2}}

It is well know that -\Delta u= c_nu^{\frac{n+2}{n-2}}. Moreover (\mathbb{R}^n,u^{\frac{4}{n-2}}_{\epsilon,\xi}g_E) is isometric to the standard sphere minus one point.

  • For any a\in \mathbb{S}^n and \lambda>0 define

\displaystyle\delta(a,\lambda)=c_n\left(\frac{\lambda}{\lambda^2+1+(\lambda^2-1)\cos d(a,x)}\right)^{\frac{n-2}{2}}

where d(a,x) is the geodesic distance of a and x on \mathbb{S}^n. Actually \cos d(a,x)=a\cdot x

  • For each p\in \mathbb{B}^{n+1}, define \delta_p(x):\mathbb{S}^n\to \mathbb{R} by


Both the second and third one satisfy

\displaystyle \frac{4(n-1)}{n-2}\Delta_{\mathbb{S}^n}\delta-n(n-1)\delta+c_n\delta^{\frac{n-2}{n+2}}=0

If we make p=\frac{\lambda-1}{\lambda+1}a, the third one will be changed to the second one.

To get the second one from the first one, let us deonte \Phi_a:\mathbb{S}^n\to \mathbb{R}^n be the stereographic projection from point a. Then

\displaystyle \delta(a,\lambda)\circ \Phi^{-1}_a=c_n\left(\frac{\lambda(1+|y|^2)}{\lambda^2|y|^2+1}\right)^{\frac{n-2}{2}}=c_nu_{\lambda,0}u_{1,0}^{-1}

It should be able to see the third one from hyperbolic translation directly.