Tag Archives: sigma2

Some calculation of sigma2 II

We want find the critical metric of the following functional restricted to the space of conformal metrics of unit volume 

\displaystyle I(g)=\frac{n-4}{2}t\int_M J^2_gd\mu_g+4\int_M\sigma_2(A_g)d\mu_g

Here {(M^n,g)} is a Riemannian metric with {n\geq 5}, {A} is the Schouten tensor and {J} is {tr_gA}.

Now let us differentiate the two terms respectively, suppose {g(s)=(1+s\psi)^{\frac{4}{n-4}}g=u(s)^{\frac{4}{n-2}}g}. From conformal change property of scalar curvature, we get 

\displaystyle J_{g(s)}=u(s)^{-\frac{n+2}{n-2}}\left(-\frac{2}{n-2}\Delta_{g}u(s)+Ju(s)\right)

\displaystyle \dot J=-\frac{2}{n-2}\Delta_g\dot u-\frac{4}{n-2}J\dot u


\displaystyle \frac{d}{ds}|_{t=0}\int_{M}J_{g(s)}^2d\mu_{g(s)}=\int_{M}2J\dot{J}+\frac{2n}{n-2}J^2\dot ud\mu

\displaystyle =\int_M -\frac{4}{n-2}J\Delta \dot u+\frac{2(n-4)}{n-2}J^2\dot ud\mu

\displaystyle =\int_M\left(-\frac{4}{n-4}\Delta J+2J^2\right)\psi d\mu

where we have used the fact {\dot u(0)=\frac{n-2}{n-4}\psi}. Next, it is easy to know 

\displaystyle \frac{d}{ds}|_{t=0}\int_M \sigma_2(A_{g(s)})d\mu_{g(s)}=2\int_{M}\sigma_2(A)\psi d\muSo 

\displaystyle I'(g)\psi=2t\int_{M}\left(-\Delta J+\frac{n-4}{2}J\right)\psi d\mu_g+8\int_{M}\sigma_2(A)\psi d\mu_g

Now assume {g(s)} keep the unit volume infinitesimally, that is {\int_M \psi d\mu=0}, then {I'(g)=0} under this constraint means 

\displaystyle t\left(-\Delta J+\frac{n-4}{2}J\right)+4\sigma_2(A)=const.

Remark: M.J. Gursky, F. Hang, Y.-J. Lin, Riemannian Manifolds with Positive Yamabe Invariant and Paneitz Operator, Int. Math. Res. Not.

Bach flat four dimensional manifold and sigma2 functional

We want to find the necessary condition of being the critical points of {\int\sigma_2} on four dimensional manifold.

1. Preliminary

Suppose {(M^n,g)} is a Riemannian manifold with {n=4}. {P_g} is the Schouten tensor

\displaystyle P_g=\frac{1}{n-2}\left(Ric-\frac{R}{2(n-1)}g\right)

and denote {J=\text{\,Tr\,} P_g}. Define

\displaystyle \sigma_2(g)=\frac{1}{2}[(\text{\,Tr\,} P_g)^2-|P_g|_g^2]

\displaystyle I_2(g)=\int_M \sigma_2(g)d\mu_g

where {|P|_g^2=\langle P,P\rangle_g}. It is well known that {I_2(g)} is conformally invariant.

Suppose {g(t)=g+th} where {h} is a symmetric 2-tensor. We want to calculate the first derivative of {I_2(g(t))} at {t=0}. To that end, let us list some basic facts (see the book of Toppings). Firstly denote {(\delta h)_j=-\nabla^i{h_{ij}}} the divergence operator and

\displaystyle G(h)=h-\frac{1}{2}(\text{\,Tr\,} h) g

\displaystyle (\Delta_L h)_{ij}=(\Delta h)_{ij}-h_{ik}Ric_{jl}g^{kl}-h_{jk}Ric_{il}g^{kl}+2R_{ikjl}h^{kl}

where {\Delta_L} is the Lichnerowicz Laplacian. Then the first variation of Ricci curvature and scalar curvature are

\displaystyle \dot{R}=\delta^2h-\Delta(\text{\,Tr\,} h)-\langle h,Ric\rangle \ \ \ \ \ (1)

\displaystyle \dot{Ric}=-\frac{1}{2}\Delta_Lh-\frac{1}{2}L_{(\delta G(h))^\sharp}g=-\frac{1}{2}\Delta_Lh-\frac{1}{2}L_{(\delta h)^\sharp}g-\frac{1}{2}Hess(\text{\,Tr\,} h)

\displaystyle =-\frac{1}{2}\Delta_Lh-d(\delta h)-\frac{1}{2}Hess(\text{\,Tr\,} h)

where we were using upper dot to denote the derivative with respect to {t}.

2. First variation of the sigma2 functional

Lemma 1 {(M^4,g)} is a critical point of {I_2(g)} if and only if

\displaystyle \Delta P-Hess(J)+2\mathring{Rm}(P)-2JP-|P|_g^2g=0 \ \ \ \ \ (2)

where {(\mathring{Rm}(P))_{ij}=R_{ikjl}P^{kl}}.


\displaystyle \frac{d}{dt}\big|_{t=0} I_2(g(t))=\int_M J\dot J-\langle\dot P,P\rangle+\langle h,P\wedge P\rangle+\frac{1}{2}\sigma_2\text{\,Tr\,} h \,d\mu_g

where {(P\wedge P)_{ij}=P_{ik}P_{jl}g^{kl}}. Since we have

\displaystyle \int_M\langle P,\dot P\rangle\\ =\frac{1}{n-2}\int_M\langle P, \dot Ric-\dot Jg-Jh\rangle =\frac{1}{n-2}[\langle P, \dot Ric\rangle-\dot J J-J\langle h,P\rangle]

\displaystyle =\frac{1}{n-2}[-\frac{1}{2}\langle h,\Delta_L P\rangle+\langle h,Hess(J)\rangle-\frac{1}{2}\Delta J \text{\,Tr\,} h-\dot J J-J\langle h,P\rangle]

Plugging this into the derivative of {I_2} to get

\displaystyle (n-2)\frac{d}{dt}\big|_{t=0} I_2(g(t))\\ =\int_M\frac{1}{2}\langle h,\Delta_L P\rangle-\langle h,Hess(J)\rangle+\frac{1}{2}\Delta J \text{\,Tr\,} h\\

\displaystyle \quad +(n-1)\dot J J+J\langle h,P\rangle+(n-2)\langle h,P\wedge P\rangle+\frac{n-2}{2}\sigma_2\text{\,Tr\,} h d\mu_g

In order to simplify the above equation, we recall the definition of Lichnerowicz Laplacian {\Delta_L}

\displaystyle (\Delta_LP)_{ij}=(\Delta P)_{ij}-2P_{ik}Ric_{jl}g^{kl}+2R_{ikjl}P^{kl}

\displaystyle =(\Delta P)_{ij}-2(n-2)P_{ik}P_{jl}g^{kl}-2JP_{ij}+2R_{ikjl}P^{kl}

Apply (1) to get

(n-1)\dot J J=\frac12J\dot R=\frac12J[\delta^2h-\Delta(\text{\,Tr\,} h)-\langle h,Ric\rangle]
=\frac{1}{2}[\langle h, Hess(J)\rangle-\text{\,Tr\,} h\Delta J-(n-2)J\langle h, P\rangle-J^2\text{\,Tr\,} h]

Therefore we can simplify it to be

\displaystyle (n-2)\frac{d}{dt}\big|_{t=0} I_2(g(t)) =\int_M\frac{1}{2}\langle h,\Delta P\rangle-\frac{1}{2}\langle h, Hess(J)\rangle+h^{ij}R_{ikjl}P^{kl}

\displaystyle -\frac{n-2}{2}J\langle h,P\rangle-\frac{1}{2} J^2 \text{\,Tr\,} h+\frac{n-2}{2}\sigma_2\text{\,Tr\,} h d\mu_g

Let us denote {(\mathring{Rm}(P))_{ij}=R_{ikjl}P^{kl}}. Using the fact {n=4} and the definition of {\sigma_2},

\displaystyle \frac{d}{dt}\big|_{t=0} I_2(g(t))=\frac{1}{4}\int_M\langle h,Q\rangle d\mu_g


\displaystyle Q=\Delta P-Hess(J)+2\mathring{Rm}(P)-2JP-|P|_g^2g


Remark 1 It is easy to verify {\text{\,Tr\,} Q=0}, this is equivalent to say {I_2} is invariant under conformal change. More precisely, letting {h=2ug}, then

\displaystyle \frac{d}{dt}\big|_{t=0} I_2(g(t))=\frac{1}{4}\int_M\langle h,Q\rangle d\mu_g=\frac{1}{2}\int_M u\text{\,Tr\,} Q d\mu_g=0.

Remark 2 If {g} is an Einstein metric with {Ric=2(n-1)\lambda g}, then {P=\lambda g}, {J=n\lambda} and

\displaystyle \mathring{Rm}(P)=\lambda Ric=2(n-1)\lambda^2 g

It is easy to verify that {Q=0}. In other words, Einstein metrics are critical points of {I_2}.

Are there any non Einstein metric which are critical points of {I_2}?

Here is one example. Suppose {M=\mathbb{S}^2\times N}, where {\mathbb{S}^2} is the sphere with standard round metric and {(N,g_N)} is a two dimensional compact manifolds with sectional curvature {-1}. {M} is endowed with the product metric. We can prove {Ric=g_{S^2}-g_N}, {P=\frac{1}{2}g_{S^2}-\frac{1}{2}g_N}, {J=0}, {\mathring{Rm}(P)=g_{prod}} and consequently {Q=0}.

Note that the above example is a locally conformally flat manifold. For this type of manifold, we have the following lemma which can say

Lemma 2 Suppose {g} is locally conformally flat and {Q=0}, then

Proof: When {g} is locally conformally flat,

\displaystyle \mathring{Rm}(g)=JP+|P|_g^2g-2P\wedge P

{Q=0} is equivalent to

\displaystyle \Delta P-Hess(J)+|P|_g^2g-4P\wedge P=0

Actually this is equivalent to the Bach tensor {B} is zero. \Box

3. Another point of view

We have the Euler Characteristic formula for four dimensional manifolds

\displaystyle 8\pi^2\chi(M)=\int_M (|W|_g^2+\sigma_2) d\mu_g

therefore the critical points for {\int_M \sigma_2d\mu_g} will be the same as the critical points of {\int_M |W|_g^2d\mu_g}. However, the functional

\displaystyle g\rightarrow \int_M |W|_g^2d\mu_g

is well studied by Bach. The critical points of this functional satisfy Bach tensor equal to 0.

\displaystyle B_{ij}=\nabla^k\nabla^l W_{likj}+\frac{1}{2}Ric^{kl}W_{likj}

Obviously, {B=0} for Einstein metric, but not all Bach flat metrics are Einstein. For example {B=0} for any locally conformally flat manifolds.

Some calculations of sigma_2

On four-manifold {(M^4,g_0)}, we define Shouten tensor

\displaystyle A = Ric-\frac 16 Rg

and Einstein tensor and gravitational tensor

\displaystyle E=Ric - \frac 14 Rg\quad S=-Ric+\frac{1}{2}Rg

Suppose {\sigma_2} is the elemantary symmetric function

\displaystyle \sigma_2(\lambda)=\sum_{i<j}\lambda_i\lambda_j

Thinking of {A} as a tensor of type {(1,1)}. {\sigma_2(A)} is defined as {\sigma_2} applied to eigenvalues of {A}. Then

\displaystyle \sigma_2(A)= \frac{1}{2}[(tr_g A)^2-\langle A, A\rangle_g] \ \ \ \ \ (1)

Notice {A=E+\frac{1}{12}Rg}. Easy calculation reveals that

\displaystyle \sigma_2(A)=-\frac{1}{2}|E|^2+\frac{1}{24}R^2 \ \ \ \ \ (2)

Under conformal change of metric {g=e^{2w}g_0}, we have

\displaystyle R= e^{-2w}(R_0-6\Delta_0 w-6|\nabla_0 w|^2) \ \ \ \ \ (3)

\displaystyle A=A_0-2\nabla^2_0 w+2dw\otimes dw-|\nabla_0w|^2g_0 \ \ \ \ \ (4)

\displaystyle S=S_0+2\nabla_0^2w-2\Delta_0wg_0-2dw\otimes dw-|\nabla_0 w|^2g_0 \ \ \ \ \ (5)

We want to solve the equation {\sigma_2(A)=f>0}, which is equivalent to solve

\displaystyle \sigma_2(A_0-2\nabla^2_0w+2dw\otimes dw-|\nabla_0w|^2g_0)=f

This is an fully nonlinear equation of Monge-Ampere type. Under local coordinates, the above equation can be treated as

\displaystyle F(\partial_i\partial_j w,\partial_kw,w,x)=f

where {F(p_{ij},v_k,s,x):\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}\times\mathbb{R}^n\times\mathbb{R}\times\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow \mathbb{R}}. This equation is elliptic if the matrix {\left(\frac{\partial F}{\partial p_{ij}}\right)} is positive definite. In order to find that matrix, we need the linearized operator

\displaystyle L[\phi]=\frac{\partial F}{\partial p_{ij}}(\nabla_0^2\phi)_{ij}=\frac{d}{dt}|_{t=0}F(\partial_i\partial_j w+t\partial_i\partial_j\phi,\partial_kw,w,x) \ \ \ \ \ (6)

Using the elementary identity

\displaystyle \frac{d}{dt}\rvert_{t=0}\sigma_2(H+tG)=tr_gH\cdot tr_gG-\langle H, G\rangle_g. \ \ \ \ \ (7)

for any fixed matrix {H} and {G}. Now plug in {H=A} is Schouten tensor and {B=-2\nabla_0^2\phi}. One can calculate them as

\displaystyle tr_g H\cdot tr_g G=\langle \frac{1}{3}Rg, G\rangle_g \ \ \ \ \ (8)

Then we get

\displaystyle L[\phi]=\langle S,G\rangle_g=-2\langle S,\nabla^2_0\phi\rangle_g